The three oil-producing countries Qatar, Romania, and Saudi Arabia were the finalists in long jump. Walking around, I heard three comments from three different persons, one from each country:
"Saudi Arabia got the Gold."
"Qatar ended in a higher place than Saudi Arabia".
"Romania was the worst."
A judge commented that whenever a person said anything mentioning his own country, he was right in his beliefs, but if he only spoke about other countries, he was wrong. I didn't know which person was from which country, but I could recognize the Romanian because of his occidental clothes. With help of the judge's comment, I could reason out the final standings. What were they?
if the romanian had been the second speaker than the solution could have been
Saudia Arabia: Gold (Saudi Arabian speaker, making his comment correct)
Romania: Silver (The third comment was by the one from Qatar making it incorrect)
Qatar: Bronze (The second comment was made by the Romanian, making it false, meaning Qatar was not in a higher place than Saudi Arabia. It couldn't hace been in 2nd because than the third statement would have been true. And it's not.)