The dominant species in Planet Blancneldos is the chamsonels. There are two types of chamsonels - logicians and philosophers. The chamsonels also have two different skin colors related to their veracity. Pink logician chamsonels always lie while blue logician chamsonels always tell the truth. Pink philosopher chamsonels always speak truthfully but blue philosopher chamsonels always speak falsely.
Three chamsonels A, B and C are approached by a visitor from a neighboring planet who asks each of their skin color and type. Their responses are given below. It is known that the visitor is color blind.
1. B is a pink philosopher.
2. My color is pink.
C is a blue logician.
1. Each of the two statements made by A is a lie.
2. B is a blue logician.
What are the type and skin color of each chamsonel?
From C1, we know that either A or C is telling the truth (but not both).
C2 and A1 both imply that B is telling the truth, and since one of those statements is true, we know that B is telling the truth.
Because B is truthful, we know from his statement that C is a blue logician.
And because C is telling the truth, we know from C2 that B is a blue logician.
And because A is lying, we know from A2 that A is blue and therefore a philosopher.