In a certain island, one-third of the native people are liars who
always lie, one-third are knights who always tell the truth, and
one-third are knaves that is, people who strictly alternate between
speaking the truth and telling a lie, irrespective of order. The
chances of encountering any one of the three natives on a road on
the island are the same.
Four friends Art, Ben, Cal and Dan Ė who are natives of this island
got the top four ranks in a certain quiz The following statements
are made by each of Art, Ben, Cal and Dan.
1. Exactly two of us are knights.
2. Ben got the first rank and Cal got the third rank.
1. Dan got the fourth rank.
2. Exactly one of us is a knave.
1. The absolute difference between Ben's rank and mine is 2.
2. Dan is not a liar.
1. Exactly one of us is a liar.
2. I am a knave.
Assuming no ties, determine the probability that:
(i) The absolute difference between Cal's rank and Danís rank is
(ii) Exactly three of the four friends are liars.
(iii) Exactly two of the four friends are knaves.
(iv) At least one of the four friends is a knight.
*** For Artís second statement - assume the entire statement is a
lie if the whole statement or any of its parts thereof is false.
For example- A2 is false if in reality Ben got the first rank and
Cal got the fourth rank.