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Words count (Posted on 2014-03-25) Difficulty: 4 of 5
(D3)How many subsets of (a,b,c, x,y,z) contain no letters neighboring each other in the English ABC (26 letters)?

(D4)How many "words" (i.e, ordered subsets from (a,b,c, x,y,z)) contain no neighboring letters that neighbor each other in the English ABC (26 letters)?

No Solution Yet Submitted by Ady TZIDON    
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Some Thoughts solution to part 1; thoughts on part 2 | Comment 4 of 8 |

Part 1:

Let f(s,0) be the number of subsets drawn from an alphabet of s letters (let them be the first s letters of the English alphabet) that do not contain the sth letter, and f(s,1) be the number that do contain the sth letter.

f(1,0)=1 and f(1,1)=1, adding to 2 (the null set and {a}).

f(n+1,0)=f(n,0)+f(n,1) as you are not utilizing the new sth (=n+1st) letter.

f(n+1,1)=f(n,0) as you can't use the letter after the last one used.

s      f(s,0)   f(s,1)     total
1         1        1          2
2         2        1          3
3         3        2          5
4         5        3          8
5         8        5         13
6        13        8         21

and we see the Fibonacci numbers emerging.

For s=1 we get 2, the 3rd Fibonacci number, so we seek the 28th Fibonacci number, 317,811, found on the list in Sloane's OEIS. Remember that this total includes the null set.

Part 2:

The early version, with alphabet size (sz) at a constant 26, took way too long to finish. At present it even balks at sz=11.

DECLARE SUB addOn ()
CLEAR , , 25000
DEFDBL A-Z
DIM SHARED s$, ct, sz


FOR sz = 1 TO 11
  ct = 0
  addOn
  PRINT sz, ct
NEXT

SUB addOn
  FOR i = 0 TO sz
    IF i = 0 THEN
'     PRINT s$
      ct = ct + 1   ' terminate string here
    ELSE
      c$ = CHR$(96 + i)
      IF INSTR(s$, c$) = 0 THEN
        good = 1
        IF LEN(s$) > 0 THEN
          IF ABS(ASC(c$) - ASC(RIGHT$(s$, 1))) = 1 THEN good = 0
        END IF
        IF good THEN
          s$ = s$ + c$
          addOn
          s$ = LEFT$(s$, LEN(s$) - 1)
        END IF
      END IF
    END IF
  NEXT
END SUB

 


alphabet     number of
  size    ordered subsets
  1            2
  2            3
  3            6
  4            17
  5            70
  6            379
  7            2498
  8            19185
  9            167514
 10            1635971
 


putting the first few numbers into Sloane's OEIS produces no result.

As a check that all such strings are counted, and only those strings the counted strings were printed out for size 4 alphabet:

a
ac
ad
adb
b
bd
bda
bdac
c
ca
cad
cadb
d
da
dac
db

which includes a null string at the top, to make the 17 reported.

With a modification to report substrings of various sizes that make up the total count, we get (the total appears at the extreme right):

1      1  1                                                                                    2
2      1  2  0                                                                                 3
3      1  3  2  0                                                                              6
4      1  4  6  4  2                                                                          17
5      1  5  12  18  20  14                                                                   70
6      1  6  20  48  90  124  90                                                             379
7      1  7  30  100  272  582  860  646                                                    2498
8      1  8  42  180  650  1928  4386  6748  5242                                          19185
9      1  9  56  294  1332  5110  15912  37566  59612  47622                              167514
10     1  10  72  448  2450  11604  46250  148648  360642  586540  479306                1635971
11     1  11  90  648  4160  23534  114900  470230  1547272  3835230 6362636  5296790   17655502

each row being in order: the size of the alphabet, count of zero-length strings, length-1 strings, etc. and finally the total count.

Going to the use of QB64 to speed things up, we can get

12    1  12  110  900  6642  43792  253890  1267236  5291450  17737608  44735778  63779034  208554913

The only patterns I see in this array are:

Let n(a,s) be the number of length-s valid strings formed from an alphabet of size a.

then

n(a,0)=1
n(a,1)=a
n(a,2)=n(a-2,1)*n(a-1,1)=(a-2)*(a-1)
n(a,3)=n(a-2,1)*n(a-1,2)=(a-2)*(a-3)*(a-2)

The ways of rearranging all the letters (n(a,a)) is given by the OEIS's A002464. That sequence for various a is:

4       2
5       14
6       90
7       646
8       5242
9       47622
10      479306
11      5296790
12      63779034
13      831283558
14      11661506218
15      175203184374
16      2806878055610
17      47767457130566
18      860568917787402
19      16362838542699862
20      327460573946510746
21      6880329406055690790
22      151436547414562736234
23      3484423186862152966838
24      83655126041771262574458
25      2092014180086865279171334
26      54406969991009281966468810

(based on the formula given in Sloane: a(n)=(n+1)*a(n-1)-(n-2)*a(n-2)-(n-5)*a(n-3)+(n-3)*a(n-4), where their a(n) is my n(a,a).)

So the number n(26,26) is 54,406,969,991,009,281,966,468,810, which counts only the words that use all 26 of the letters of the alphabet. We can't utilize this in combination with lower numbers, such as 26*2092014180086865279171334 representing 25-letter strings, as the 2092014180086865279171334 is for a continuous alphabet of 25 letters; a subset of 25 from all 26 has a gap in the middle that affords greater flexibility, in allowing for example, K next to M in the "alphabet" lacking an L. So each of the 26 25-letter subsets that can be used as strings in a 26-letter alphabet would have more than 2092014180086865279171334 allowable permutations.

Via Sloane, the column n(a,3) is also identified as (a-2)^3-(a-2)^2, which agrees with the above (a-2)*(a-3)*(a-2). Column (a,4) comes out to (a-3)^2*((a-3)^2+1), which is also (a-3)^4 + (a-3)^2.


  Posted by Charlie on 2014-03-25 15:41:33
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